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To analyze the association between anthropometric variables and cardiovascular risk factors in adults and older adults of Rio Branco, Acre. A population-based cross-sectional study with adults and older adults was conducted. The statistical analyses consisted of the distribution of anthropometric variables according to the cardiovascular risk factors by frequency and dispersion measures. Anthropometric variables are important predictors of cardiovascular risk; however, their assessments should be performed independently, according to sex and age group.
The epidemiological profile of the population has been suffering the influence of chronic non-communicable diseases CNCD 1 1. Cad Saude Publica. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, to Arq Bras Cardiol. The high prevalence of overweight in developing countries is associated with changes in eating habits and with the sedentary lifestyle 2 2. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Geneva: WHO; [citado 1 jun ]. Studies have shown the excess adipose tissue, especially the concentration in the central region of the body, is associated with systemic inflammation, contributing directly to the elevation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 7 7.
Adipose macrophage infiltration is associated with insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction in obese subjects.
Arter Thromb Vasc Biol. The atypical presence of visceral fat creates physiological changes that promote lipid changes and may contribute to dyslipidemia, a triggering factor of CVD 8 8. Abdominal obesity and cardiovascular risk: performance of anthropometric indexes in women.
Anthropometric indicators, used in assessment of routines on body composition, have been used in the CVD risk prediction because of its practicality, low cost, and good reliability, being widely used both in the clinic and in epidemiological studies 9 9. Cienc Saude Coletiva. However, it remains uncertain which anthropometric variable has greater robustness for the CVD screening. For example, studies indicate that waist circumference WC 10 Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies.
Eur Heart J. But the BMI is still widely used. However, in a study comparing BMI with the conicity index CIthe former could better predict the CVD incidence and mortality, but they were different for men and women 11 Ann Epidemiol. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist : hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk: a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. This study aims to analyze the association between anthropometric variables and cardiovascular risk factors in the population of adults and older adults, based on the data collected by the Study of Chronic Diseases EDOCperformed in Rio Branco, Acre.
This article analyzes data from EDOC, a cross-sectional population-based study with adults and the older adults, of both sexes, carried out from April to September and composed of two household surveys: EDOC-A, with adults 18 to 59 years of ageand EDOC-I, with older adults 60 years of age or olderliving in Rio Branco, Acre. Pregnant women and individuals with cognitive impairments that could hinder communication or the understanding of the questions were excluded.
Sampling plans were selected in two stages, census enumeration area CEA and households. The households were selected by systematic sampling with random starts and distinct ranges per survey. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an adult population. Arch Med Res. Considering the sampling plan, what is cluster by CEA and householda 1. This procedure resulted in samples from adults and 1, older adults. The effective interviewed sample was adults and 1, older adults.
The sample weights were estimated by the inverse of the product of inclusion probabilities in each stage and subsequently calibrated for population data by sex and age groups, using a post-stratification estimator, in order to deal with the typical biases of the home studies and correct non-differential answers 14 Silva PLN.
Calibration estimation: when and why, how much and how. Diretoria de Pesquisa, The population data used in the calibration of the sample weights were estimated for July 1st,using the linear trend method that IBGE applies to its population estimates by municipality. For this study, a subsample of the base project was used with adults and older adults who had complete anthropometric measurement.
Due to the loss of anthropometric information, it was necessary to perform a new calibration of the sample weights to deal with this non-response or loss and obtain weights that produce estimates foradults and 23, older adults.
Further details on the EDOC sampling plan, calculation and calibration of sample weights and different subsamples can be obtained in Amaral et al. Rev Saude Publica. In all assessments, the protocols recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine 16 American College of Sports Medicine.
Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; The interviewees were instructed to wear light clothes and to climb barefoot and with empty pockets in the center of the base of the scale, with the body standing and weight evenly distributed between the two feet, arms beside the body, and looking forward. The participant, without using objects on his head, was arranged with his back to the anthropometer, with parallel legs and feet, weight equally distributed in both, arms beside the body, and palms facing the body.
The BMI was determined by the body mass ratio in kilograms by height square in meters.
Obesity : preventing and managing the global epidemic: report of a Who Consultation. Geneva: WHO; Lipschitz DA. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Prim Care. The WC was considered normal when lower than cm in men and lower than 88 cm in women 4 4.
For the hip measurements, the largest region of the gluteal bulge in the horizontal plane was considered, with the participants with their arms slightly in front of their body and feet together. The measurement was read on its side. Diretrizes Brasileiras de Obesidade To estimate the conicity index, the following equation was used:.
The BP was measured three times, one after five minutes of initial rest and two more at two-minute intervals, recording the mean, according to the determinations of the VI Brazilian Guidelines for Hypertension. For laboratory tests of blood samples, peripheral blood was collected from the antecubital fossa, fractionated into two test tubes for triglyceride dosage, total cholesterol, and fractions HDL: high density lipoprotein, and LDL: low-density lipoproteinand glycemia, with participants fasting for 12h.
Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes. The statistical analyses consisted of the distribution of anthropometric variables according to cardiovascular risk factors by frequency and dispersion measures, according to sex and age. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal do Acre, and all the participants ed an informed consent form. In women, averages above the TG reference values were observed for all analyzed anthropometric indicators and TC among those with altered conicity index Table 1.
Among the women, higher TC mean values were observed in all altered indicators Table 2. The highest frequencies of overweight and obesity in adults, according to BMI, were observed in the age group from 40 to 59 years: Among older adults, the highest frequencies of overweight due to BMI were observed in the age group from 60 to 79 years In women aged 80 years or older, a high frequency of overweight was also observed. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in obese men according to all analyzed indicators. Also, the highest prevalence of diabetes was observed in men, the highest being the CI anthropometric indicator Among the older adults, the prevalence of hypertension and obesity was higher than that found in the adult group.
For diabetes, the highest prevalence was The prevalence of dyslipidemia was similar to that observed in adults Table 5. In the bivariate analysis, among the older adults, there were lower effects of association between anthropometric indicators and outcomes than among adults. The highest frequencies of general obesity were found in adults aged 40 to 59 years and in older adults aged 60 to 69 years.Adult sex Rio branco
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