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The present study reports frequency rates of cybergrooming, profiled characteristics of cybergrooming perpetrators, and examine direct and indirect associations between cyberbullying victimization, self-esteem, and cybergrooming victimization.
The study sample included 2, adolescents between 11 and 19 years from three Western Germany, the Netherlands, the United States countries and one Southeast Asian country Thailand. Across countries, Western girls, as compared to boys, were at greater risk to have been contacted by a cybergroomer. No ificant sex difference was found for Southeast Asian adolescents. Also, Southeast Asian adolescents reported higher rates of cybergroomer contact as compared to Western adolescents.
Cybergroomers were most often males and older than victims. Both cyberbullying victimization and low self-esteem increased the probability of coming into contact with a cybergroomer, and self-esteem mediated the effects of cyberbullying victimization on cybergrooming victimization. The are discussed in relation to practical implications and future research. La muestra del estudio incluye 2. El Undoubtedly, information and communication technologies ICTs have changed the way people interact and communicate with each other rapidly in the last two decades.
For adolescents, the use of social networking sites, instant messenger, and mobile Internet devices are an integral component of daily life Livingstone, Haddon, Go?? In puberty, adolescents begin to establish independence, their own sexual identity, and start dating and intimate relationships. Such use of ICTs also includes accessing sites with information about sexuality, accessing sites with pornographic content, and accessing chat rooms, teen dating sites, and social networking sites where adolescents can meet new people.
Adolescence is also marked by curiosity, uncertainties, trying, testing, and crossing borders and may give therefore rise to sexual online solicitation, cybergrooming and online abuse of adolescents. Although this research can help understanding cybergrooming victimization among adolescents, the magnitude of the problem is still unknown. Varying authors derived risk factors of cybergrooming victimization from the traditional grooming and sexual child abuse research.
However, only a very few clear-cut risk markers have been investigated empirically until now Wachs, Below, we report research conducted on cybergrooming as well as the reasons to expect why cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem might facilitate adolescents to become a victim of cybergrooming victimization. Hence, cybergrooming can comprise unwanted sexual solicitation i. Depending on the responses of the victim, one or more stages are skipped and sometimes the order is changed. Online environments posses favorable conditions for cybergroomers due to the possibilities of anonymized interactions, the lack of geographic boundaries, increased possibilities to get access to an intended victim without getting disturbed through the social environment, and the possibilities to victimize simultaneously varying adolescents Berson, ; Wachs, Research on cybergrooming has mainly focused on self-reports more qualitative approaches than quantitative approachespolice reports or law-enforcement agents interviews.
Hence, the prevalence rate of cybergrooming is difficult to determine given the paucity of research and limitation of each method e.
In addition, research does not uniformly define and measure cybergrooming, making it difficult to compare. Finally, the sample sizes and characteristics differ among studies greatly and so statistics vary Wachs, Statistics in the following paragraph represent some of the research conducted on sexual online solicitation and more specifically on cybergrooming victimization. In another study, In a recent study in the Netherlands, More recently, in a study with a sample of Malaysian adolescents aged between 9 and 16 years old, In sum, the studies show that sexual online risks are a concern of adolescents around the world.
Research on cybergrooming has focused on both the victims and the perpetrators.
Concerning the age of perpetrators, studies based on recorded police cases have shown that cybergroomers are not a homogeneous group. In another study of recorded cases of sexual online solicitation in Sweden, around one third of the perpetrators were between 18 and 24 years old, one third between 24 and 44, and one third was either under 18 or over 44 years old Shannon, Regarding the victims of cybergrooming, research suggests that girls are more likely to experience sexual online solicitation and cybergrooming compared with boys, even though it should not been overlooked that boys may become also victimized Baumgartner et al.
There are different explanations why girls are Online Adult Dating chat guadix higher risk: the early maturity of girls, the more intensive use of ICTs for communication and interaction i. Girls might also show a higher risk because perpetrators of sexual abuse are more often heterosexual men who are looking for female victims Berson, Concerning age, research revealed that adolescents are at higher risk of cybergrooming compared to children and adults Baumgartner et al.
Through a developmental lens, adolescents are more interested in interpersonal interaction and communication, and are more interested in sexual topics and exchange than children. They possess the social, communicative, and cognitive abilities but also the possibilities, since they use ICTs more privately and have more access to ICT compared with children Livingstone et al. Older adolescents are not only more at risk of receiving online sexual solicitations but also are more likely to engage in risky online behavior i.
While there is little research on cybergrooming in Western countries, research in Southeast Asian countries like Thailand barely exists. However, there are some incidents to suggest that in Thailand the prevalence rates are same high or even higher compared to Western countries. In a study, only one quarter of participating Thai parents reported to monitor the online activities of their children Michelet, In the same vein, Thailand has been identified as one of the most popular destinations for child sex tourism since the s Davy,with the rapid growth of ICTs child sex tourism and hence sexual online abuse.
research suggests that sexually abusive acts that do not involve physical contact, such as sex chatting or forcing someone to reveal their body via webcam, are not recognized as forms of sexual online abuse by Thai parents Michelet, In sum, there is a need for research on sexual online solicitation among Thai adolescents and cross-national comparative research. This research makes it reasonable to suggest that associations between cybergrooming victimization and cyberbullying victimization do exist.
Victims of cyberbullying lack good peer relationships, feel socially more ineffective, and have greater interpersonal difficulties Tokunaga, This social vulnerability might ease manipulation of the victim without getting disturbed by friends who might distract or warn the victim.
Research showed that adolescents who feel lonely and bored online show high need for affection and attention and try to find entertainment and social compensation are more likely to communicate online with strangers Baumgartner et al. Another explanation addresses the ICT use of cyberbullying victims which might be a risk for further victimization. Indeed, a study with German adolescents addressing the associations between cybergrooming and cyberbullying victimization revealed that victims of cybergrooming displayed nearly 2 times higher odds ratios to become cybergroomed after controlling for traditional bullying victimization Wachs et al.
However, this sample was relatively small, with only students from one country and therefore further investigation is needed. Another crucial risk factor for cybergrooming victimization might be a low self-esteem. Building on traditional research of child abuse, it is reasonable to suggest associations between low self-esteem and cybergrooming victimization. Low self-esteem is often associated with feelings of worthlessness, inadequacies, deficiencies, and lack of confidence Rosenberg,which might explain why cybergrooming victims were found to endure negative feelings associated with cybergrooming i.
The feeling of worthlessness might also explain why victims do not ask for help or believe that no one will believe them. In the same vein, low self-esteem might also make it easier to convey to the child that no one cares what happens. People with low self-esteem were also found to have a preference for ICT-related communication compared with face-to-face communication son, Therefore, it might be that adolescents with low self-esteem prefer also to flirt online, looking for friends online, and prefer establishing online relationships, which might increase the risk for cybergrooming victimization.
In a qualitative interview study, cybergrooming victims reported loosing self-esteem after the cybergrooming victimization Whittle et al. In the European Online Grooming Project conducted in four European countries UK, Belgium, Norway, and Italy Davidson and Gottschalk used analyses of police recorded cybergrooming cases to derive risk factors for cybergrooming victimization. They found that the victims of cybergrooming might show lower self-esteem. However, this finding might be distorted as research was not conducted using direct victim s. In sum, there is a need for research investigating the associations between self-esteem and cybergrooming victimization with validated scales on a quantitative level.
Lastly, in several studies, lower self-esteem appeared to be associated not only with cybergrooming but also with cyberbullying victimization Brighi et al. Cyberbullying is also known to include negative feedbacks on posting pictures or videos on social networking sites. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate if self-esteem mediates the associations between cybergrooming victimization and cyberbullying victimization and plays a role in explaining poly-victimization in adolescents.
In summary, research found evidence of a relationship between cybergrooming victimization and cyberbullying victimization and between cybergrooming victimization and lowered self-esteem. Research has also found that low self-esteem can put adolescents at an increased risk of being cyberbullied.
This study had three aims: 1 to report the frequency rates of cybergrooming in adolescents by sex, age, and nationality; 2 to investigate demographic characteristics sex and age of the cybergroomer reported by the victims, while considering differences in cybergrooming victims by sex and nationality; and 3 to analyze the associations between cybergrooming victimization and cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem, while controlling for sex, age, and nationality.
As mentioned above, cyberbullying victims have a higher risk for cybergrooming victimization because of the social vulnerability and risky online behavior. Low self-esteem might be a risk factor because of the emotional vulnerability to the cybergroomer and the preference for using ICTs for interpersonal relations.
It is hypothesized that higher involvement in cyberbullying victimization and lower levels of self-esteem is associated with higher probability of experiencing cybergrooming victimization. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between cyberbullying victimization and cybergrooming victimization is mediated by lower self-esteem in the way that cyberbullying victimization decreases self-esteem that in turn increases the risk of cybergrooming victimization.
Participants included 2, adolescents from 6 th to 10 th grade from three schools in Germany, three schools in the Netherlands, one school in the Unites States and one school in Thailand. In terms of gender, Dependent variable. Until now, there are no instruments with adequate psychometric properties for measuring cybergrooming available. In the current study, we assessed cybergrooming by using an instrument that had been used before Wachs et al. These answer options were derived from the bullying items used in this study in order to enlarge the comparability.
Independent variable :. This questionnaire starts with a definition of cyberbullying to improve validity of responses. This definition contents the three criteria derived from traditional bullying research: intent to harm, power imbalance between victim and perpetrator, and repetition. After the definition, participants could state how often they have experienced four forms of cyberbullying victimization. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Rosenberg, is a item scale of global self-esteem, which includes both positive and negative feelings about the self.
Participants were asked for sex and age of the cybergroomer. The question Which sex had the cybergroomer? The question How old was the cybergroomer? Demographic variables. Participants were asked for sex and age to determine demographic characteristics. Nationalities were determined after data collection. Participation in this study was voluntary and based on written parental consent.
In Germany and the Netherlands an online survey was used, while in Thailand and the USA a paper-pencil method was implemented 1. The survey was completed during one regular school hour in the school's computer lab respective in classrooms under the supervision of trained research assistants. All data were collected in In all countries, participants were informed that their participation was anonymous and that they were free to withdraw from the study at any time.
The average time needed to complete the questionnaire was about 30 minutes. The study was reviewed and approved by the data protection officer and educational authority of the federal state of Lower Saxony, Germany OS 1 R. In order to prevent distress and further harm from participating in this study, oral and written information was provided where those who had taken part in the research could get counseling online and offline was given. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the frequency rates of cybergrooming.
Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess the bivariate associations between the bullying typologies and sex and country. Cramer's V was used to calculate the effect size. When assumptions of Pearson's chi-square test were violated i. To analyze the multivariate associations between the dependent variable cybergrooming victimization and the independent variables cyberbullying victimization, self-esteema simple binary logistic regression was conducted using dichotomous dependent variables, while controlling for demographics sex, age, nationality.
The decision to dichotomize the outcome variable was made through different reasons. Firstly, the cybergrooming variable was positively skewed, what contradicts the application of OLS-regression and might lead to biased parameter estimates. Logistic regression does not have normality assumptions for the DVs as long as the show an adequate absolute case e.
We accepted loss of statistical power but avoided biased parameter estimates due to non-normal deviated DV.Online Adult Dating chat guadix
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