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Las diferencias de sexo en las conductas de acoso de los adolescentes. Psychosocial Interventionvol. Funding source: Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. ABSTRACT: In recent decades there has been a progressive increase in concern and research into the problems of peer aggression, both in the educational setting and more recently, online.

The present study sought to explore sex differences in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, since current literature has not reached a consensus in how bullying involvement could be moderated by sex. The sample consisted of 3, adolescents aged years old who completed a paper survey which included the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire and the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. The main found no differences in cyberbullying rates for boys and girls. In the case of bullying, there were more bully-victims among the boys, but no differences were found in the pure victims or pure perpetrators.

When analysing the specific bullying behaviours suffered or perpetrated, several differences were found.

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However, said differences were discrete and it seems that there are not distinctly differentiated bullying patterns, which discourages the use of clearly differentiated preventive strategies for boys and girls. Keywords: Bullying, Adolescence, Sex differences.

Los principales resultados no mostraron diferencias en las tasas de ciberacoso de chicas y chicos.

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Palabras clave: Palabras clave, Adolescencia, Diferencias sexuales. In recent decades there has been a progressive increase in concern and research into the problems of peer aggression, both in the educational setting and, more recently, online. This growing concern is encouraged by different international institutions of reference, such as the World Health Organization WHOthat has specifically identified bullying as one of the main health problems in adolescence Inchley et al.

Bullying has traditionally been defined as a form of repeated and deliberate aggression, carried out by one or several people on others with reduced ability to defend themselves Olweus, Regardless of the format in which the aggressions are carried out, there are numerous behaviours that have been characterised as bullying, such as the spread of rumours and being threatened or insulted.

On the other hand, other behaviours are constrained to the traditional physical format, such as being pushed or hit, while other are specific of the online format, like hacking a social networking Ortega-Ruiz at al. Sex differences in bullying have been explored with some studies concluding that sex is not statistically associated with the probability of suffering or being a perpetrator of traditional bullying Del Rey et al.

Other studies found higher rates of traditional bullying Romera at al. Further research suggests that there could be cultural differences across countries Athanasiou et al. This disparity of could also be explained by social and Santiago de Compostela girls sex differences in how sex and gender are regarded, influencing how research participants respond to questions about these variables Foody et al. Furthermore, there is research pointing out that the differences may lie in the way bullying is carried out Silva et al.

Differences between boys and girls do not seem to be limited only to how the bullying is carried out, but can also extend to the outcomes of prevention programs. A recent meta-analysis concluded that bullying prevention programs seem to be effective in reducing bullying among boys, but not girls Kennedy, a. It has been recommended that the bullying behaviours in which girls or boys are predominantly involved be taken into in developing prevention and intervention methodologies targeted at specific behaviours and coping strategies Smith et al.

Due to the disparity of surrounding this issue, the main aim of this research was to explore sex differences in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among a sample of students in Galicia Spainboth in the overall rates and in the specific bullying behaviours they could be engaging in. This knowledge about sex differences will contribute to reaffirm the basis for future studies and educational programmes that address cultural and social constructions that may be influencing the differential behaviours between girls and boys.

This research was carried out in Galicia, Spain.

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It consisted of a paper survey applied to secondary school students between the ages of 12 and An intentional sampling procedure was employed, contacting a total of 13 public secondary schools, with 12 schools agreeing to participate in the study. The schools were not linked to each other and represented the totality of public schools in the three municipalities to which they belonged, one of them being urban and the other two rural. The initial sample was comprised of 3, participants whose parents consented to their participation and individually agreed to fill the survey. The final sample consisted of 3, participants with a mean age of The educational level distribution was Regarding the geographical area, Collaboration with the management of the schools was secured prior to data collection.

School principals delivered letters to adolescent participants explaining the objective and date of data collection asking their parents for consent to include their children in the Santiago de Compostela girls sex. The questionnaire was administered by the researchers to small groups students in a classroom setting between February and April Participants were informed of the objective of the study and received a detailed explanation and set of instructions for completing the paper survey.

They were also informed that participation was voluntary, that they were free to complete or to refuse to fill the questionnaire, and that the possibility to opt-out was available at any time. The average time to complete the questionnaire was 30 minutes. The frequency of these behaviours is estimated taking as a reference the two months through a Likert scale with 5 response options: No, Yes, once or twice, Yes, once or twice a month, Yes, once a week, Yes, several times a week.

Answers from once or twice a month, once a week and several times a week were coded as involvement for both perpetration and victimization. The internal consistency evaluated through the Cronbach alpha coefficient was. This scale has 22 items, 11 for victimization and 11 for perpetration, relating to different types of cyberbullying behaviours e.

The frequency of these behaviours is estimated by taking the last two months as a reference timeframe using a Likert scale with the same 5 response options the EBIPQ has. The Cronbach alpha coefficient obtained in the present study was. An analysis of the missing values was carried out to verify a low percentage of missing values in each of the variables and the randomness of those values. This is the same criterion used by the original Spanish adaptation, as the authors consider repetition to be a requirement for bullying Del Rey et al.

Finally, to confirm the one-dimensionality of the scales obtained by the original authors, a confirmatory factor analysis CFA was performed with AMOS The main showed that overall rates of bullying ranged between The sum of the different bullying roles victims, perpetrators, and bully-victims in a total involvement across all roles of Regarding sex, no statistically ificant were found in the overall cyberbullying rates, while the only statistical ificance in traditional bullying was in the bully-victim role.

These rates are presented in detail in Table 1. For this, only those involved in bullying were analysed. The n was victims and perpetrators, and the bully-victims were included in both. There were differences in all the victimization behaviours, the boys suffered more physical violence In the case of perpetration, boys had higher rates in having hit, kicked or pushed The only behaviour the girls conducted ificantly more than boys was saying nasty things about someone to other people Although no statistically ificant were found for the overall rates of cyberbullying, it was also of interest to explore if the specific cyberbullying behaviours reported Santiago de Compostela girls sex the ECIPQ were the same for boys and girls see Table 3.

In this case, the n was for victims and for perpetrators, included bully-victims in both. While no ificant sex differences were found for the victimization behaviours, perpetration behaviours differed according to sex.

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Boys reported more threatening of others The effect size explored by the CC seemed quite low, so different binary logistic regression analyses were carried out, with the intention of assessing to what extent the answers showed by the subjects to the different bullying behaviours suffered or perpetrated were able to estimate if an individual was a boy or a girl.

Specifically, four analyses were carried out: 1 one selecting only those subjects who met the criteria necessary to be considered victims of traditional bullying; 2 another selecting only those subjects who met the criteria necessary to be considered victims of cyberbullying; 3 a third selecting only those subjects who met the criteria necessary to be considered perpetrators of traditional bullying; and 4 a fourth and last one selecting only those subjects who met the criteria necessary to be considered perpetrators of cyberbullying.

As shown in Table 4despite the fact that the resulting models were statistically ificant in all four cases, their explanatory capacity was discrete between 4. The current study sought to determine if the rates of bullying are different between boys and girls by engaging with a large sample of adolescents from Galicia Spain.

The main show that traditional bullying seemed to be more common than cyberbullying, with a total involvement in any role of This rate is disaggregated into The only differences between boys and girls found in traditional bullying were in the rates of bully-victims The traditional bullying victimization behaviours that were most common across the entire sample seemed verbal and subtler forms of bullying like being called names, having nasty things about themselves said to other people, or suffering the spread of rumours about themselves. Except for the spreading of rumours, these were the most common perpetration behaviours as well.

Though there were only differences between boys and girls in the role of bully-victim, several differences in specific behaviours were found. There were differences in all the victimization behaviours, with boys experiencing more physical violence, being insulted or called names and being threatened, while girls were subjected to more relational behaviours, like the spread of rumours or being excluded or ignored by others.

In the case of perpetration, boys showed higher rates than girls in almost all the differences found: executing more physical violence, insulting, and threatening others. However, the logistic regression showed that the differences are not remarkable enough to propose preventive strategies focused on girls and others focused on boys. Although there were certain differences in specific behaviours suffered and perpetrated, it seemed that there is not a clearly defined pattern of bullying for girls and another one distinctly differentiated among boys.

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Similarly to traditional bullying but with lower rates, the most common cyberbullying victimization and perpetration behaviours appeared to represent subtler forms of bullying like saying nasty things to others, spreading rumours or excluding someone in social networking sites, chat rooms, or messenger apps. It is worth mentioning that some differences were found between boys and girls regarding the cyberbullying acts they committed, but not in the ones they suffered.

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Boys presented higher rates in hacking s, threatening, creating false s or posting embarrassing content of others, while the only behaviour that was more prevalent for girls was saying nasty things about someone to other people.

Even if the cyberbullying rates were similar for boys and girls, there seemed to be slight differences in the way boys or girls do it. Girls seem to avoid physical confrontations but resort to emotional and psychological abuse Marcum et al.

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