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However, in studying extant literature regarding nudity in advertising a of limitations emerge. The aim of this research is to explore and describe consumer attitudes to the depiction of nudity in advertising in a ly overlooked context. Addtionally, in order to overcome omissions in extant empirical research a secondary aim is to explore such issues from a variety of perspectives. The paper does this specifically through the of gay men, straight men, gay women and straight women. The literature review concentrates on the key areas of sex roles in advertising, sex appeal and arousal in advertising and nudity in advertising.
Thereafter follows a discussion and justification of the chosen method, including a breakdown of the choice of advertising material. The paper draws a of conclusions with suggestions for further research and implications for practice. Depictions of nudity in advertising, both male and female, vary greatly across Europe e.
Tissier-Desbordes and Manceau, and the world e.
Boddewyn, Interest in gender and advertising is popularly credited as beginning with Goffman There was also work during the late s focussing on sex roles in advertising Lungstrom and Sciglimplagilia, ; Peterson and Kerin, Work in this area continued to be developed into the s and s Gilly, ; Elliott et al. A further area studying gender and advertising was concerned with nudity, arousal or sex appeal Tinkham and Reid, ; Severn et al.
Furthermore, Aaker and Bruzzone and Venzina and Paul respectively looked at irritation and provocation in advertising and offered perspectives on nudity. However, in studying extant literature a of limitations emerge. First, the majority of empirical work is conducted in the American context.
Indeed, Gilly observes that cultures and attitudes may differ in other countries and this needs further exploration. Second, many of the existing studies use convenience samples gathered from the student community and it is widely argued that more representative samples should be studied LaTour et al. Third, in addition to material being gathered from an excessively narrow sociodemographic group, existing studies typically examine solely female attitudes Tissier-Desbordes and Manceau, ; James, and generally the heterosexual community, ignoring wider, more diverse and more representative samples Stern, ; Burnett, Cumulatively, these limitations constrict the reliability and generalisability of existing research into these issues.
Consequently, the aim of this research is to explore and describe consumer attitudes to the depiction of nudity in advertising in a ly overlooked context. Further, in order to overcome omissions in extant empirical research a secondary aim is to explore such issues from a variety of perspectives. The study aims to help academics develop greater and wider understanding of consumer attitudes towards nudity in advertising. The paper begins with a review of existing literature, concentrating on the key areas of sex roles in advertising, sex appeal and arousal in advertising and nudity in advertising under scrutiny.
Following from this are the findings, broken down in to three key themes and conclusions with suggestions for further research and implications for practice. The literature review begins with depictions of sex roles in advertising and utilizes the research of Goffman Gender Advertisements as a starting point considered a seminal piece Tissier-Desbordes and Manceau, This literature is relevant to the current study since as well as considering the sex role stereotypes presented in advertising it also addresses nudity.
An historical analysis of this area of the literature, from the late s to the present day then follows. Thereafter the literature considering sex appeal within advertising is examined, culminating with a review of nudity in advertising. During the late s a body of literature developed that studied the representation of women within advertising in terms of sex roles.
Goffman interprets in excess of four hundred print advertisements including images of women. Goffman demonstrates how patriarchy is represented in advertising and provides some focus on how males are depicted in advertisements containing images of stereotypically female roles. Concurrently the advertising and broader marketing literature examine the notion of sex role portrayal within advertising. Lundstrom and Sciglimpaglia analyze sex role portrayals in advertising, in particular, how men and women consider these portrayals and if these feelings affect their attitude towards the products within the advertisements.
They deduce that there is criticism about the portrayal of women in advertising, in particular from " women from higher income households, younger women, more highly educated women, women whose personal role orientations are less traditional and women from higher occupational status households" Responses range from being annoyed by the advertisements but not intending to change behavior as a result the authors suggest that this may be because respondents see so many advertisements as annoying but " not sufficient to cause to alter past purchase behavior " Lundstrom and Sciglimpaglia, to those who would change their behavior.
They did find that those who were most critical were not those people who were most likely to change. Further, aside from stereotypical role portrayals, Lundstrom and Sciglimpaglia draw from campaigns that include " dual roles, role switching and role blending " and make suggestions for practitioners to alter the traditional roles depicted in their advertisements. Noting that the advertising literature had established that women were portrayed in stereotypical roles in the US advertising market, Gilly juxtaposes television commercials from Australia, Mexico and the USA to see if such stereotypical role portrayals appeared elsewhere.
Employing content analysis Gilly compares many aspects including whether products for men and women were advertised by men or women, where the characters were likely to be portrayed home, office etcactivities portrayed and sex of voiceover artist. As Gilly anticipates Mexican advertisements did contain more traditional sex roles, however Gilly contends that the difference between the USA and Mexico was not as great as expected perhaps due to the of US companies advertising products in Mexico.
While considerable time has been spent studying female role portrayals within advertising Elliott et al. Elliott et al. More recently, Kacen and Nelson revisit content analysis of print advertisements and provide a comparative study using earlier data to examine changing stereotypical sex role images of women. Making similar suggestions to Elliott et al.
In contrast to earlier works like Lundstrom and Sciglimpaglia or Gilly Kacen and Nelson observe portrayals of men and women within advertising to extend treatment of gender portrayals. Briefly, Kacen and Nelson conclude "that the gender portrayals in print advertising media remain disappointingly sexist, stereotypical and limiting".
They argue that levels of sexism have not dropped since the s. Developing alongside the literature focusing on sex roles within advertising is literature exploring sex appeal within advertising. Tinkham and Reid attempt to replicate an earlier study by Richmond and Hartman that suggests that sex appeal in advertising falls into four dimensions that they label; functional, fantasy, symbolism and inappropriate.
This underpins notions of a congruence between nudity and advertising in other studies. While Tinkham and Reid are concerned with product and advertising recall Severn, Belch and Belch referred to copy content as well as the visual sexual appeal. Developing the conclusions of earlier studies Severn et al. The are that copy recall is affected by more explicit sexual appeal, making it difficult for the reader to process the information provided. Sex appeal also affects other areas of cognitive response at the expense of the product or message.
Severn et al. Extending the work of Severn et alLaTour and Henthorne and Henthorne Thousand oaks nude women LaTour examine ethical opinions of sexual appeal and erotic stimuli in advertising. Despite existing evidence that male respondents are more receptive to female nudity in advertising only the female in the suggestive advertisement is naked, although covered LaTour and Henthorne conclude that both men and women were troubled. The topic of sex appeal in advertising covers many different aspects of sex appeal and types of sex appeal see Tinkham and Reid, ; Severn et al.
Consequently, Reichert and Ramirez argue that sexual appeal in advertising is not simply about nudity and explore what consumers find sexy in advertising in an effort to refine definitions of sex appeal and develop understanding of why some advertisements are received more favorably than others. In addition to nudity being described as a facet of sexual appeal in advertising Reichert and Ramirez, and potentially a cause of irritation in advertising Aaker and Bruzzone,the extant literature includes it as a element of provocative appeal in advertising VTzina and Paul, In describing what may be provocative for the audience of an advertisement VTzina and Paul cite sexual appeal or nudity.
In support of research VTzina and Paul concur that age and gender are variables that affect the evaluation of advertisements.
Disapproval of the more provocative advertisements used tend to come with the older respondents. More men approve of the suggestive advertisement containing nudity. The above review analyzed nudity as part of a variety differing perspectives. However extant literature also offers studies researching more specifically on the use of nudity in advertising. Early work on female nudity in advertising begins with Peterson and Kerin who focused their attention on the female in advertising. Reflecting the view of the critics that advertising is " presenting women as simple-minded, non-career oriented, and male dependent " and that it " perpetuates archaic and distorted sex role stereotypes " Peterson and Kerin criticize the increasing s of advertisements including nudity and the range of products using such images.
Peterson and Kerin argue that male respondents are more impressed than females by nude female models in advertisements. While Peterson and Kerin examine female nudity in advertising Simpson et al. Exploring the question of respondents preferring opposite sex nudity in advertising they test hypotheses concentrating on the effects of the amount of clothing worn by the male model and product congruency with nudity.
In studying a large group of male and female respondents they argue that female respondents did prefer a partially clothed male model. However, female respondents prefer to see nudity included in advertisements where the product was congruent with the nudity. In contrast, Simpson et al. The authors propose that despite the increasing use of nudity in advertising, responses continue to be negative in many situations to such stimuli and especially so for women The studies of LaTour et al. In addition, while the extant research indicates that there is stronger male approval of female nudity in advertising Peterson and Kerin, ; Simpson et al.
Tissier-Desbordes and Manceau find five themes emerge from their data; the denial of women to admit they are shocked by thethe representation of women and of nudity, sexual content, congruence with the product and the importance of aestheticism and nature. In calling for future research Tissier-Desbordes and Manceau suggest that further studies should include men. However, much of this research has been conducted in a single country, often using non-representative samples and usually within large, homogenous and heterosexual communities. The aim of this research is to explore and describe attitudes towards nudity in advertising in other ly ignored and understudied research contexts, using samples deed to explore and describe wider groups and contexts than those that simple convenience samples can provide and from broader social and cultural groups.
In this regard, a focus group approach was considered a suitable means of collecting data.
Particularly important in the research was not to lead the groups and allow them to steer their own conversations, focus groups provided an excellent vehicle for this Malhotra, Once an appropriate method was chosen it was felt that the dynamics of the groups were of key consideration.
In order to achieve the aim of the study and overcome limitations in extant research it was decided that the sample should represent a wide group of people with varying gender, sexuality, age and occupations. In total 22 focus groups of varying size were carried out with 54 participants involved, including a wide range of male, female, straight and gay respondents. In order to overcome issues of respondents behaving in a different or inappropriate manner due to the construction of their group see Morgan, the groups also consisted of varying types.
Some groups consisted of members of the same sex, others opposite sex or third with partners both in gay and straight relationships.Thousand oaks nude women
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