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His chief claim to literary fame, however, is as Emily Dickinson's confidant and literary advisor. You can find his essay, published in the Atlantic Monthlydescribing their relationship here. Higginson made so many allusions to historical and literary figures in the following essay that it seemed that to annotate them all would simply Wentworth women sex the piece unreadable.
So I have limited myself to providing brief explanations of those references whose general import is not clear in context. The first essay in this volume, "Ought Women to Learn the Alphabet? There was, for instance, a report that it was the perusal of this essay which led the late Miss Sophia Smith to the founding of the women's college bearing her name at Northampton, Massachusetts.
The remaining papers in the volume formed originally a part of a book entitled "Common Sense About Women" which was made up largely of papers from the "Woman's Journal. It must have attained a considerable circulation there, as the fourth stereotyped edition appeared in Paris smiled, for an hour or two, in the yearwhen, amidst Napoleon's mighty projects for remodeling the religion and government of his empire, the ironical satirist, Sylvain Marchal, thrust in his "Plan for a Law prohibiting the Alphabet to Women.
His proposed statute consists of eighty-two clauses, and is fortified by a "whereas" of a hundred and thirteen weighty reasons. It would seem that the brilliant Frenchman touched the root of the matter. Ought women to learn the alphabet? There the whole question lies. Concede this little fulcrum, and Archimedea 2 will move the world before she has done with it: it becomes merely question of time.
Resistance must be made here or nowhere. Obsta principiis. Woman must be a subject or an equal: there is no middle ground. What if the Chinese proverb should turn out to be, after all, the summit of wisdom, "For men, to cultivate virtue is knowledge; for women, to renounce knowledge is virtue"?
No doubt, the progress of events is slow, like the working of the laws of gravitation generally. Certainly there has been but little change in the legal position of women since China was in its prime, until within the last half century. Lawyers admit that the fundamental theory of English and Oriental law is Wentworth women sex same on this point: Man and wife are one, and that one is the husband. It is the oldest of legal traditions. When Blackstone declares that "the very being and existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage," and [the] American Kent echoes that "her legal existence and authority are in manner lost;" when Petersdorff asserts that "the husband has the right of imposing such corporeal restraints as he may deem necessary," and Bacon that "the husband hath, by law, power and dominion over his wife, and may keep her by force within the bounds of duty, and may beat her, but not in a violent or cruel manner;" when Mr.
Justice Coleridge rules that the husband, in certain cases, "has right to confine his wife in his own dwelling house, and restrain her from liberty for an indefinite time," and Baron Alderson sums it all up tersely, "The wife is only the servant of her husband,"-these high authorities simply reaffirm the dogma of the Gentoo [I. If the wife have her own free will, notwithstanding she be of a superior caste, she will behave amiss. Yet behind these unchanging institutions, a pressure has been for centuries becoming concentrated, which, now that it has begun to act, is threatening to overthrow them all.
It has not yet Wentworth women sex very visibly in the Old World, where, even in England, the majority of women have not till lately mastered the alphabet sufficiently to their own name in the marriage register. But in this country the vast changes of the last few years 3 are already a matter of history.
No trumpet has been sounded, no earthquake has been felt, while State has ushered into legal existence one half of the population within its borders. Surely, here and now, might poor M. Marchal exclaim, the bitter fruits of the original seed appear. The sad question recurs, Whether women ought ever to have tasted of the alphabet. It is true that Eve ruined us all,according to theology, without knowing her letters. Still there is something to be said in defence of that venerable ancestress.
The Veronese lady, Isotta Nogarola, five hundred and thirty-six of whose learned epistles were preserved by De Thou, composed a dialogue on the question, whether Adam or Eve had committed the greater sin. But Ludovico Domenichi, in his "Dialogue on the Nobleness of Women," maintains that Eve did not sin at all, because she was not even created when Adam was told not to eat the apple. It was "in Adam all died," he shrewdly says; nobody died in Eve: which looks plausible.
Be that as it may, Eve's daughters are in danger of swallowing a whole harvest rest of forbidden fruit, in these revolutionary days, unless something be done to cut off the supply. It has been seriously asserted, that during the last half century more books have been written by women and about women than during all the uncounted ages. It may be true; although, when we think of the innumerable volumes of Memoires by French women of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,-each justifying the existence of her own ten volumes by the remark, that all her contemporaries were writing as many,-we have our doubts.
As to the increased multitude of general treatises on the female sex, however,-its education, life, health, diseases, charms, dress, deeds, sphere, rights, wrongs, work, wages, encroachments, and idiosyncrasies generally,-there can be no doubt whatever; and the poorest of these books recognizes a condition of public sentiment of which no other age ever dreamed. Still, literary [history] preserves the names of some reformers before the Reformation, in this matter. Then followed the all-accomplished Anna Maria Schurman, inwith her "Dissertatio de Ingenii Muliebria ad Doctrinam et meliores Literas Aptitudine," with a few miscellaneous letters appended in Greek and Hebrew.
At last came boldly Jacquette Guillaume, inand threw down the gauntlet in her title- "Les Dames Illustres; ou par bonnes et fortes Raisons il se prouve que le Sexe Feminin surpasse en toute Sorte de Genre le Sexe Masculin;" and with her came Margaret Boufflet and a host of others; and finally, in England, Mary Wollstonecraft, whose famous book, 4 formidable in its day, would seem rather conservative now; and in America, that pious and worthy dame, Mrs.
Mather Crocker, Cotton Mather's grandchild, who, inpublished the first book on the "Rights of Woman" ever written on this side the Atlantic. Meanwhile there have never been wanting men, and strong men, to echo these appeals. From Cornelius Agrippa and his essay on the excellence of woman and her preeminence over man, down to the first youthful thesis of Agassiz, "Mensa Femin Viri Animo superior," there has been a succession of Wentworth women sex crying in the wilderness.
Modern theologians are at worst merely sub-acid [i. Meanwhile most persons have been content to leave the world to go on its old course, in this matter as in others, and have thus acquiesced in that stern judicial decree with which Timon of Athens sums up all his curses upon womankind,-"If there sit twelve women at the table, let a dozen of them be-as they are. Ancient or modern, nothing in any of these discussions is so valuable as the fact of the discussion itself. There is no discussion where there is no wrong. Nothing so indicates wrong as this morbid self-inspection. The complaints are a perpetual protest, the defence a perpetual confession.
It is too late to ignore the question; and, once opened, it can be settled only on absolute and permanent principles. There is a wrong; but where? Does woman already know too much, or too little? Was she created for man's subject, or his equal?
Shall she have the alphabet, or not? Ancient mythology, which undertook to explain everything, easily ed for the social and political disabilities of woman. Goguet quotes the story from Saint Augustine, who got it from Varro. Cecrops, building Athens, saw starting from the earth an olive-plant and a fountain, side by side.
The Delphic oracle said that this indicated a strife between Minerva and Neptune for the honor of giving a name to the city, and that the people must decide between them. Cecrops thereupon assembled the men, and the women also, who then had a right to vote; and the result was the Minerva carried the election by a glorious majority of one. Then Attica was overflowed and laid waste: of course the citizens attributed the calamity to Neptune, and resolved to punish the women.
It was therefore determined that in future they should not vote, nor should any child bear the name of its mother. Thus easily did mythology explain all troublesome inconsistencies; but it is much that it should even have recognized them as needing explanation. The real solution is, however, more simple. The obstacle to the woman's sharing the alphabet, or indeed any other privilege, has been thought by some to be the fear of impairing her delicacy, or of destroying her domesticity, or of confounding the distinction between the sexes. These may have been plausible excuses.
They have even been genuine, though minor, anxieties. But the whole thing, I take it, had always one simple, intelligible basis,-sheer contempt for the supposed intellectual inferiority of woman. She was not to be taught, because she was not worth teaching.
The learned Acidalius aforesaid was in the majority. According to Aristotle and the Peripatetics, woman was animal occasionatum, as is a sort of monster and accidental production. Medieval councils, charitably asserting her claims to the rank of humanity, still pronounced her unfit for instruction. In the Hindoo dramas she did not even speak the same language with her master, but used the dialect of slaves. When, in the sixteenth century, Francoise de Saintonges wished to establish girls schools in France, she was hooted in the streets; and her father called together four doctors, learned in the law, to decide whether she was not possessed by demons, to think of educating women,- pour s assurer qu'instruire des femmes n'tait pas un uvre du demon.
It was the same with political rights. The foundation of the Salic Law was not any sentimental anxiety to guard female delicacy and domesticity; it was, as stated by Froissart, a blunt, hearty contempt: "The kingdom of France being too noble to be ruled by a woman. In harmony with this are the various maxims and bon-mots of eminent men, in respect to women.
Niebuhr thought he should not have educated a girl well,-he should have made her know too much. Lessing said, "The woman who thinks is like the man who puts on rouge, ridiculous. Maginn carries to its extreme the atrocity, "We like to hear a few words of sense from a woman, as we do from a parrot, because they are so unexpected.
Channing complained, in his "Essay on Exclusion and Denunciation," of "women forgetting the tenderness of their sex," and arguing on theology. Now this impression of feminine inferiority may be right or wrong, but it obviously does a good deal towards explaining the facts it assumes. If contempt does not originally cause failure, it perpetuates it. Systematically discourage any individual, or class, from birth to death, and they learn, in nine cases out of ten, to acquiesce in their degradation, if not to claim it as a crown of glory.
If the Abbe Choisi praised the Duchesse de Fontanges for being "beautiful as an angel and silly as a goose," it was natural that all the young ladies of the court should resolve to make up in folly what they wanted in charms. All generations of women having been bred under the shadow of intellectual contempt; they have, of course, done much to justify it. They have often used only for frivolous purposes even the poor opportunities allowed them. They have employed the alphabet, as Moliere said, chiefly in spelling the verb Amo [to love].
Their use of science has been Wentworth women sex that of Mlle. All this might, perhaps, be overcome, if the social prejudice which discourages women would only reward proportionately those who surmount the discouragement. The more obstacles, the more glory, if society would only pay in proportion to the labor; but it does not. Women being denied, not merely the training which prepares for great deeds, but the praise and compensation which follow them, have been weakened in both directions. The career of eminent men ordinarily begins with college and the memories of Miltiades, and ends with fortune and fame; woman begins under discouragement, and ends beneath the same.
Single, she works with half preparation and half pay; married, she puts name and wages into the keeping of her husband, shrinks into John Smith's "lady" during life, and John Smith's "relict" on her tombstone; and still the world wonders that her deeds, like her opportunities, are inferior. Evidently, then the advocates of woman's claims-those who hold that "the virtues of the man and the woman are the same," with Antisthenes, or that "the talent of the man and the woman is the same," with Socrates in Xenophon's "Banquet"-must be cautious lest they attempt to prove too much.
Of course, if women know as much as the men, without schools and colleges, there is no need of admitting them to those institutions. If they work as well on half pay, it diminishes the inducement to give them the other half. The safer position is, to claim that they have done just enough to show Wentworth women sex they might have done under circumstances less discouraging. Take, for instance, the common remark, that women have invented nothing. It is a valid answer, that the only implements habitually used by woman have been the needle, the spindle, and the basket; and traditions reports that she herself invented all three.
In the same way it may be shown that the departments in which women have equalled men have been the departments in which they have had equal training, equal encouragement, and equal compensation; as, for instance, the theatre. Madame Lagrange, the prima donna, after years of costly musical instruction, wins the zenith of professional success; she receives, the newspapers affirm, sixty thousand dollars a year, travelling expenses for ten persons, country-houses, stables, and liveries, besides an uncounted revenue of bracelets, bouquets, and billets-doux.
Of course, every young debutante fancies the same thing within her own reach, with only a brief state-vista between. On the Wentworth women sex there is no deduction for sex, and, therefore, woman has shown in that sphere an equal genius. But every female common-school teacher in the United States finds the enjoyment of her four hundred dollars a year to be secretly embittered by the knowledge that the young college stripling in the next schoolroom is paid twice that sum for work no harder or more responsible than her own, and that, too, after the whole pathway of education has been obstructed for her, and smoothed for him.
These may be gross and carnal considerations; but Faith asks her daily bread, and fancy must be fed. We deny woman her fair share of training, of encouragement, of remuneration, and then talk fine nonsense about her instincts and intuitions. We say sentimentally with the Oriental proverbialist, "Every book of knowledge is implanted by nature in the heart of woman,"-and make the compliment a substitute for the alphabet.
Nothing can be more absurd than to impose entirely distinct standards, in this respect, on the two sexes, or to expect that woman, any more than man, will accomplish anything great without due preparation and adequate stimulus. Patten, who navigated her husband's ship from Cape Horn to California, would have failed in the effort, for all her heroism, if she had not, unlike most of her sex, been taught to use her Bowditch's "Navigator.
Therefore she did not merely carry to the Crimea a woman's heart, as her stock in trade, but she knew the alphabet of her profession better than the men around her. Of course, genius and enthusiasm are, for both sexes, elements unforeseen and incalculable; but, as a general rule, great achievements imply great preparations and favorable conditions. To disregard this truth is unreasonable in the abstract, and cruel in its consequences.
If an extraordinary male gymnast can clear a height of ten feet with the aid of a springboard, it would be considered slightly absurd to ask a woman to leap eleven feet without one; yet this precisely what society and the critics have always done. Training and wages and social approbation are very elastic springboards; and the whole course of history has seen these offered bounteously to one sex, and as sedulously withheld from the other.
Let woman consent to be a doll, and there was no finery so gorgeous, no baby-house so costly, but she might aspire to share its lavish delights; let her ask simply for an equal chance to learn, to labor, and to live, and it was as if that same doll should open its lips, and propound Euclid's forty-seventh proposition.
While we have all deplored the helpless position of indigent women, and lamented that they had no alternative beyond the needle, the wash-tub, the schoolroom, and the street, we have usually resisted their admission into every new occupation, denied them training, and cut their compensation down.
Like Charles Lamb, who atoned for coming late to the office in the morning by going away early in the afternoon, we have, first, half educated women, and then, to restore the balance, only half paid them. What innumerable obstacles have been placed in their way as female physicians; what a complication of difficulties has been encountered by them, even as printers, engravers, and deers! In London, Mr. Bennett was once mobbed for lecturing to women on watchmaking.
In this country, we have known grave professors refuse to address lyceums which thought fit to employ an occasional female lecturer. Comer stated that it was "in the face of ridicule and sneers" that he began to educate American women as bookkeepers many years ago; and it was a little contemptible in Miss Muloch to revive the same satire in "A Woman's Thoughts on Women," when she must have known that in half the retail shops in Paris her own sex rules the ledger, and Mammon knows no Salic law.Wentworth women sex
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